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Wednesday, 14 January 2015

Analyze the evolution of journalism in America


JOURNALISM IN AMERICA

United States is known as the most developed part of the world where everything is found in the modem and the latest form. Likewise, newspapers of United States are more developed than any other country. In fact, some newspapers have more than 100 pages published on daily basis. In the historical perspective of USA journalism, we find two parts of America’s journalism: before the independence; after the independence.

America was discovered by Columbus and likewise Britishers took over the hold of America in their hands as it was the colony of Great Britain Journalism of that period had to face same problem as the British government did not allow educational institutes and printing presses to work independently. The first printing press was established in 1534 in the Mexico City of America and the first publication of this press was “Relation” in 1541 through which news and annual reports were published. In 1584, Spaniards established printing press at the place of Peru. In 1638, another printing press was established in Cambridge.

Beginnings in America :
In America‘ the first newspaper appeared in Boston in 1690, entitled “Publick Occurrences”, published without authority. It was immediately suppressed, its publisher arrested. The first successful newspaper was the “Bostan News-Letter” begun by postmaster John Campbell in 1704. Two more papers made their appearance in the 1720’s.

By the eve of the Revolutionary War, about twenty-four papers were issued at all the colonies.
At war’s end in 1783, there were forty-three newspapers in print. The press played a vital role in the affairs of the new nation, many more newspapers were started. By 1814, there were 346 newspapers.

Penny-Press :
By the emergence of Penny Press, it became possible to buy a newspaper for just one penny. Initially newspapers were the property of wealthy, literate minority.

Sense of Freedom :
Benjamin Franklin and James Gorden were the journalists who had developed the sense of freedom in the minds of people and had motivated them to fight for their rights.
At last, America got freedom from the British government and established the new ways of development for newly established nation.

Daily Newspapers :
In the eighteenth century, many new daily newspapers had started their publication. In the beginning, daily newspapers were used for business and trade purposes, especially for the traders who came to the seaports of New York and other cities for trade. These newspapers informed them about import, export conditions of the country and the things that could be import in the state. In 1833, “New York Sun” was begun by Benjamin H. Dey as the daily newspaper. In 1835, “New York Herald” started its publication.

By 1841, “New York Tribune” and in 1851 “New York Time” started. And then New York became the centre of journalism from where many newspapers started.

Modern Journalism :
Joseph Pullitzer was the founder of modern journalism in USA. As it had following characteristics like prominent headlines, dramatic presentation of news, interesting articles in simple and attractive language.
Trend of yellow-journalism was also started from America, founded by William Randwolf Hurrest. But with the beginning of nineteenth century, newspapers became serious and responsible as worthy news and articles were being started publishing only.

In the present era, newspapers of USA are more in number than Great Britain. They are more developed than any other country’s newspapers. USA newspapers publish regional "and local news mostly. Although international news are also published and discussed in the newspapers.

The Industrial Revolution :
The Industrial Revolution was dramatically affected newspapers. The number of newspapers and circulation continued to rise. The 1850 census cataloged 2,526 titles. At this time, the first pictorial weekly newspapers emerged. They used illustrations.

During the civil war, accurate news reporting transformed American journalism into a dynamic force in the national life.

Circulation : 
Newspapers growth remained continue. In 1890 census, 11,314 newspapers were recorded. By the 1890, first circulation figures of a million copies per issue were recorded.

Features of the Newspapers :
At this period, the features of modern journalism appeared :
1. Bold “banner” headlines
2. Extensive use of illustrations
3. Funny pages
4. Coverage of sports events

Yellow Journalism :
Rise of “yellow journalism” also marks this era.

Trend of “Chains” :
This was also the age of media consolidation, many independent newspapers were swallowed up into powerful “Chains”.

Modern Newspapers :
By the 1910’s, all the essential features of the recognizably modern newspapers had emerged.

Newspapers of America

1690   Publick Occurrences
1704   Bostan News-Letter by Johann Campbell
1719   Bostan Gazette by William Broker
1719   American Weekly Mercury by Andrew Bradford
1722   New England Courant by James Franklin
1725   New York Gazette (New York’s first newspaper)
1727   Maryland Gazette
1728   Pennsylvania Gazette
1732   Rhode Island Gazette
1733   New York Weekly Journal by John Peter Zenger
1736   Virginia Gazette
1755   Connecticut Gazette
1756   New Hempshire Gazette
1762   Wilmington Chronicle Gazette
1763   Georgia Gazette
1770   Pennsylvania Evening Post (The first daily newspaper)
1831   Debright Free Press
1865   San Francisco Chronicle
1876   Chicago News
1877   Washington Post
1881   Los Angeles Times
1919   Daily News
1940   News Day
1947   Chicago Sun Times

Circulation of America and British Journalism 

America has more population than Britain but circulation of newspapers in Britain is more than America. It has following reasons :
1. America has more area than Britain. There are large distances. A newspaper cannot reach to the each corner of the country. On the other hand, British newspapers are circulated through the whole country.
2. Number of newspapers in America is greater than in Britain. It is obvious that when number is larger, the circulation will be divided.
3. It is fact that reading habit in America is less developed than in Britain. Number of newspapers is four hundred and eighty-six for every one thousand people in Britain and only three hundred in America.

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